Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)–oxidized carbon nanotubes (OMWCNTs), PVDF–graphene oxide (GO) and
PVDF–OMWCNTs–GO composite ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by solution-blending the
ternary mixture of PVDF–oxidized low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials–dimethylacetamide in
combination with the phase inversion method. The microscope images of the PVDF matrix
microstructure showed that the composite membranes exhibited a bigger mean pore size and higher
roughness parameters than pristine membranes. The contact angle of the membranes decreased from
78.5 (PVDF) to 66.8 (PVDF–OMWCNTs), 66.4 (PVDF–GO) and 48.5 (PVDF–OMWCNTs–GO). For the
PVDF–OMWCNTs, PVDF–GO and PVDF–OMWCNTs–GO composite membranes, there was a 99.33%,
173.03% and 240.03% increase in permeation flux and a 21.71%, 17.23% and 14.29% increase in
bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection, respectively, compared with those of the pristine membranes.
The newly developed composite ultrafiltration membranes demonstrate an impressive prospect for the
anti-irreversible fouling performance in multi-cycle operations from BSA treatment. Additionally, the
addition of OMWCNTs and GO increased the tensile strength of composite membranes from 1.866 MPa
to 2.106 MPa and 2.686 MPa, respectively. Conspicuously, the PVDF composite ultrafiltration membranes
endowed with oxidized low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials demonstrated fascinating hydrophilicity,
permeability, antifouling and mechanical performance and promising application prospects owing to
the rich oxygen-containing functional groups, high specific surface and synergistic effect of inorganic


Jiguo Zhang,Zhiwei Xu,Yinglin Li,Wei Mai,Chunying Min,Baoming Zhou,Mingjing Shan,Caiyun Yang,Zhen Wang and XiaoMing Qian.