Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries present low-cost, safe, and environmentally-friendly battery technology but suffer from the limited choice of cathode materials because of the sluggish kinetics of divalent zinc-ion as- sociated with the high adsorption and migration energy barrier. Herein, a reversible zinc/bismuth selenide mild aqueous system was demonstrated for the first time, where bismuth selenide nanoplate cathode delivers a high specific capacity of 263.2 mA h g − 1 at 0.1 A g − 1 and robust rate capability of 100.6 mA h g − 1 even at 10 A g − 1 with long-term lifespan (82.3% retention after 1000 cycles). Benefiting from the layered structure and nanoplate morphology of the bismuth selenide cathode, surface-dominated ion storage is verified by a quantitative kinetics analysis, particularly at high current rates. Notably, unlike conventional batteries with only the reversible in- tercalation of alkali ions into metal chalcogenides, zinc/bismuth selenide aqueous batteries possess a sequential proton and zinc-ion insertion/extraction process, identified by in situ synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffrac- tion. Density functional theory analysis approves the low adsorption energy and preferential embedding process of protons, and that can further optimize Zn 2 + adsorption and migration abilities in bismuth selenide nanoplate, which is mainly responsible for the excellent performance.
Lei Peng,Xiaochuan Ren,Zhaofeng Liang,Yuanhe Sun,Yuanxin Zhao,Jiaqian Zhang,Zeying Yao,Zhiguo Ren,Zhao Li,Juan Wang,Beien Zhu,Yi Gao,Wen Wen,Yaobo Huang,Xiaolong Li,Renzhong Tai,Ke Yang,Daming Zhu.
Energy Storage Materials,42,34-41(2021)